Brave & mighty rules earth.And that is also true in case of fertilizing an ovum ,of course in human.Millions of sperms rush to fertilize one ovum and one succeeds.Obviously this is an arrangement by nature to have the fittest sperm take part in reproduction.Many a times male fails to fulfill the obligation resulting in male infertility.
There are a number of causes for it.There may be abnormality in sperm production,transport,fertilization and above all timing to be able to meet the ovum in female partner.The quality of sperm has certain parameters such as 1)Quantity-2-5 ml/ejaculate 2)Number-60-150 millions/ml 3)Morphology-No structural defect at least in 80-90% 4)Motility->95% motile & 5)Fructose content-150mg% 6)Liquification Time 5 minutes. .These are to be met.
Deficient production may be due to testicular defects such as 1) abnormally placed testis 2) defective or
atrophied testis etc.The testis develops inside the abdomen but come down to house in the scrotum before birth.Because it requires some sort of air-conditioned atmosphere to be able to produce sperm.And the arrangement by nature is in such a way that scrotum provides that .The scrotal temperature is less than abdominal temperature and that is favourable for working of testis.And if for some fault testis can not descend down as in undescended or impefectly descended testis the functionality decreased or abolished.This air conditioning mechanism may be defective if there is a hydrocele where fluid surrounds the testis or a varicocele where dilated blood vessels surround it resulting in bad sperm formation. .
Trauma to it,infection with mumps/syphilis or diabetes mellitus may affect sperm production.There may not be testis at all in some and may be rudimentary in some other.A careless radiation dose may damage the functionality of testis. An abnormality in the male organ must be looked into for possible cause.
And last but not the least timing with ovulation in female must match .
So in this background the person must be assessed to arrive at the cause of infertility.First of all is the semen analysis which should be performed at least after 72 hours of abstinence.If it is not within the normal parameters or no sperm in ejaculate a biopsy of testis should be performed to know the status of structural integrity of testis and vas is to be assessed for possible blockade.If semen analysis is normal the timing factor is to be looked into.Ovulation usually occurs around day fourteen of a 28days menstrual cycle.And that time is to be targeted.
If all of the above found to be within standards then probably the female partner is to be assessed for..