Now-a-days accident is the major cause of death world wide. Again majority are due to road accidents. On time resuscitative measures play a larger role in the survival of the victim. Many passerby do not respond fearing a legal hassle. But that is not the fact now but many are not aware of it. In “ABCD” of resuscitation of a victim, A stands for air way, B for breathing, C for circulation and D for death when ABC fail. These are looked into on the priority basis in that order. Air way cleaning is the first step as patient can not take respirationoxygen and can not withstand oxygen lack for more than three minutes. Next in the hierarchy comes circulation which is to be maintained for adequate perfusion of brain and other vital organs. If all these are not looked into promptly D for death will be inevitable. Though mentioned in a order, all those can be followed simultaneously.
Circulation, the third in the hierarchy is often not adequately taken care of. This is because non availability of blood when there is severe blood loss. Many ambulances neither carry blood nor have trained persons to administer it. In India the situation is still worse in a sense that arranging blood even in a hospital setting is difficult,that to many hospitals do not have the facility to collect and store blood.
In this setting researchers are in search of a blood substitute which could maintain the the circulation, carry oxygen as well as be non reactive to the human. Typically the haemoglobin in the red blood cells are responsible for caring oxygen to the target cells. So, many polymers were developed and tested to resuscitate a patient from haemorrhagic shock due to severe blood loss requiring six to eight units in first twelve hours. Many polymers failed to fulfill the target. Recently a haemoglobin based polymer has been synthesized and available for use in developed countries. Though some reactions have been observed in its use, the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. I do not know if it is available in India. I think we will have to wait for some more time to get it at least in national highway side areas. Also, I think nanotechnology may be the future hope for development of more efficient oxygen carrying fluid. if it is blocked and the foreign material may choke the air way. The next is to establish respiration as brain is very much sensitive to lack of
- Artificial Blood: Coming Soon to An Artery Near You (singularityhub.com)